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Development Problems

KEY DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS

Introduction
Key development problems under the five thematic areas of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) for the Accra Metropolitan Assembly were derived through a preparatory workshop organised for Heads of Departments. The problems were obtained through discussions on the metropolitan profile from the Department Heads during the workshop

The following paragraphs show the identified problems under the various thematic areas:
Macro District Economy

  1. Inadequate database
  2. Inadequate infrastructural facilities.
  3. Poor record keeping by businesses
  4. Lack of political will to enforce bye-laws
  5. Post-harvest losses during bumper harvest
  6. Low level of technology.

PRODUCTION AND GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT

  1. Poor cold-storage facilities for fishermen
  2. Inadequate storage/ landing facilities/beaches for fishermen.
  3. Lack of subsidies for agric. inputs, e.g., veterinary drugs, feed, day old chicks, fishing nets etc.
  4. Pressure on agricultural land
  5. Waste water from drains being used in vegetable farming.
  6. Inadequate extension services
  7. Inadequate technology
  8. Inadequate finance, especially for small scale farmers and industries
  9. Problems with marketing of agricultural produce

Human Resource and Basic services

  • Inadequate and low quality of formal pre-schools.
  • Poor educational infrastructure
  • Short duration of SSS programme
  • Inadequate teacher training institutions
  • Inadequate provision of utility services
  • Poor environmental sanitation
  • Poverty levels of parents
  • Ineffective teaching
  • Inadequate staffing at all levels in schools
  • Shift system
  • Inadequate technical and vocational schools
  • Inadequate information on AMA landed properties
  • Political interference
  • Poor environmental sanitation
  • Lack of proper development control
  • Poor settlement layouts
  • Poor housing delivery
  • Land litigation
  • Inadequate provision of utility services
  • Uncontrolled influx of excess population due to rural urban migration.
  • Lack of interest / involvements of stakeholders in education delivery
  • Absence of in-service delivery
  • Inadequate markets and sanitary areas due to encroachment

Programmes for the vulnerable and excluded

  1. Lack of logistics and equipment for vocational schools
  2. Child abuse and exploitation
  3. Begging by people with disability
  4. Inadequate rehabilitation homes for victims
  5. Harmful cultural practices against children
  6. No clear programme for the aged.

Good Governance

  • Dual allegiance of decentralised departments
  • Non-connectivity of Departments
  • Low management interconnection
  • Lack of transparency
  • Over centralization of administration and financial issues
  • Delay in responding to requests
  • Personnel issues- size and quality
  • Delegation and interdepartmental relations.
  • Too much expenditure outside budget
  • Inadequate gadgets for metro security
  • AMA not marketing itself to engender public-private partnership and participation

Key Potentials, Opportunities, Constraints And Challenges
The POCC as a planning tool was used to derive the key development issues relating to the potentials, opportunities, constraints and challenges in the Accra Metropolis during the preparatory workshop for the departmental heads.

Potentials were defined as positive internal factors that should be considered for the plan while Opportunities were seen as external factors that positively influence development of the Metropolis. Challenges are the Obstacles, which the District has no control over and which may hamper smooth development efforts. Constraints on the other hand are the disadvantages or difficulties emanating from internal factors.

The POCC Analysis undertaken at the workshop was based on the key development problems and centred on the five thematic areas.

Metro Economy
Problem 1: Inadequate data base on businesses

Potentials

  1. Existence of qualified personnel
  2. Presence of relevant units like the Management Information Systems (MIS) Unit
  3. Availability of equipment eg, AS 400 Computer to manage and store data
  4. Existence of sub-metros
  5. Existence of bye-laws to facilitate businesses

Opportunities

  • Existence of Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), Trade Associations, International Organisations, etc
  • Higher levels of infrastructural facilities

Constraints

  1. Outmoded bye-laws
  2. Limited funds
  3. Inadequate logistics

Challenges

  • Uncontrolled development
  • Inadequate awareness creation
  • Inadequate provision of services to justify revenue collected from rate payers

Problem 2
Inability to generate enough traditional revenue to off-set expenditure:

Potentials

  1. Existence of revenue sources such as market tolls, lorry parks, Business operating permits, property rates etc.
  2. Existence of bye-laws

Opportunities

  • Existence of security agencies to assist in revenue collection
  • Availability of courts to prosecute offenders
  • Existence of business establishments
  • Privatisation of revenue collection

Constraints

  1. Lack of effective monitoring
  2. Inadequate logistics
  3. Inadequate personnel
  4. Aging of revenue collectors
  5. Inadequate training of revenue collectors

Challenges

  • Poor public image of the Assembly
  • Unplanned expenditure

Comments

  1. The need to control fishing in lagoons to ensure that the stock of fish are not depleted
  2. Financial incentives should be provided to enhance private sector participation in urban agriculture.
  3. The AMA should reduce its bureaucracy and provide documentary support for the private sector to establish businesses in Accra.
  4. Proactive measures  should be taken to improve the land tenure system
  5. The Public Relations Officer should be charged to publicise the importance and potentials of the Teshie Compost Plant in Accra.

Problem 3
The POCC was organised around problems identified in the areas of land, fishing, industry Services and Commerce:

LAND
Potentials

  • Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) funds
  • Backyard farming
  • Drain reservations
  • AMA bye-laws on land use

Opportunities

  1. National laws on land use

Constraints

  • Inability of AMA to enforce bye-laws

Challenges

  1. Land litigation
  2. Massive encroachment

FISHING
Potentials

  • Sea/ Coastline
  • Aquaculture
  • Large numbers of fisher folk
  • Availability of market

Opportunities

  1. National Laws on fishing
  2. CBF
  3. Provision of fishing inputs by Governments, eg EMSRF package
  4. Training schemes for the fisher folks

Constraints

  • Inadequate funds

Challenges

  • Inadequate funds and support from central government
  • Inadequate storage facilities
  • Attitude of fisher folks towards re-investment
  • Encroachment by foreign vessels

INDUSTRY
Potentials

  1. Market
  2. Manpower/ skilled labour
  3. Utilities
  4. Technology
  5. Friendly bye-laws

Opportunities

  • Availability of Industrial land (Free Zone Policy)
  • Foreign Investors attraction
  • Technical support
  • Improved transport and communication facilities
  • Financial institutions
  • Political stability
  • Technology

Constraints

  1. Poor industrial waste management
  2. Bureaucracy
  3. Poor negotiation skills for contracts

Challenges

  • Under production of industries
  • Inadequate funding
  • Inadequate infrastructure

SERVICES AND COMMERCE
Potential

  1. Availability of hotels
  2. Safe environment
  3. Presence of tourist infrastructure

Opportunity

  • Foreign missions
  • Favourable Government Policies
  • Ghanaian Hospitality

Constraints

  1. Pressure on facilities
  2. Congestion in the CBD
  3. Pollution
  4. Poor Sanitation

Challenges

  • High rate of immigration
  • High crime rate
  • Inadequate public transport

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND BASIC SERVICES

Problem 1

  1. Poor Educational Infrastructure

Potentials

  • Existing Structures
  • Availability of Land
  • District Assembly Common Fund
  • P.T.A. Support
  • HIPC Fund for education

Opportunities

  1. Old Students support
  2. Donor Support
  3. Religious bodies
  4. NGO support
  5. Private/ Public Sector support
  6. GETFund
  7. VALCO Trust Fund

Constraints

  • Land litigation
  • Low income / poverty
  • Delays in the release of the District Assembly Common Fund

Challenges

  1. Inadequate mobilisation of internally generated revenue
  2. Ability to source donor funds
  3. Competing demands

Problem 2
Lack of Interest / involvement of stakeholders in Education

Potentials

  • Existence of PTA, SMEs, Old Students/Pupils Associations
  • Unit Committees, Religious, Traditional Councils, Community Organisations, Industrial Concerns and Institutional Organisations

Opportunities

  1. Existence of large corporate bodies
  2. Media
  3. Public Private Partnership
  4. Favourable Government Policy
  5. Traditional Council Fund

Constraints

  • Negative cultural attitudes and practices
  • Lack of confidence by donor community in local economy
  • Limited resources

Challenges

  1. Unfavourable economic conditions

Problem 3

  • Poor Environmental Sanitation

Potentials

  1. Existence of sanitation bye-laws
  2. AMA policy on private public partnerships
  3. Sanitary sites
  4. Existence of sanitary facilities
  5. The presence of programmes such as the Accra Metropolis Environmental Health Initiative (AMEHI)
  6. Expertise of Assembly Staff

Opportunities

  1. The Media
  2. National Sanitation Policy
  3. Donor Support

Constraints

  • Inadequate finance
  • Inadequate expertise
  • Improper lay out
  • Land litigation
  • Encroachment on sanitary sites
  • Lack of enforcement of sanitary bye-laws
  • Apathy on the part of residents

Inadequate provision of utility services
Potentials

  1. Existence of service providers
  2. Willingness to patronise utility services
  3. Availability of lay out

Opportunities

  • Private participation
  • Donor support
  • Community participation
  • Availability of foreign expertise
  • Sites and services schemes
  • Exploring alternative forms of energy

Potentials

  1. Well organised PTAs
  2. Internally generated funds
  3. MPs common fund

Opportunities

  • Donor Agencies
  • NGOs
  • Educational Fund (GETfund)
  • Contributions from old students associations
  • Religious bodies

Constraints

  1. Bureaucracy
  2. Ineffective monitoring mechanisms on revenue collection
  3. Limited funds
  4. Inadequate budgetary allocation

Challenges

  • Corruption (over invoicing and under invoicing)
  • The large population makes it difficult for the Assembly to      plan effectively

Problem 2
CHILD ABUSE

Potentials

  1. Children’s Act 560 of 1998
  2. FCUBE Programme
  3. Community Tribunals
  4. Adoptions
  5. Children’s homes and orphanages
  6. Scholarships
  7. WAJU
  8. Social Welfare
  9. Women and Children’s Affairs Ministry
  10. MPs and Assembly Common Funds

Opportunities

  • NGOs
  • Donor Agencies
  • Religious Bodies
  • The Media
  • P.T.As.

Constraints

  1. Large family Sizes
  2. High cost of education
  3. Parental irresponsibility
  4. Ignorance of child rights

Challenges

  • Bad cultural practices in handling of children
  • Poverty
  • Extended family system
  • High illiteracy rate

Problem 3
Begging by persons with disabilities
Potential

  1. Enforcement of laws against begging
  2. Availability of rehabilitation centres
  3. Availability of educational institutions
  4. Enforcement of the 2% intake of PWDs in all establishments
  5. District Assembly Common Fund

Opportunities

  • NGOs
  • Donor Agencies
  • Ghana Employers Association
  • Religious Bodies

Constraints

  1. Lack of family support
  2. Ignorance of the law on 2% quota of labour force
  3. Lack of societal support

Challenges

  • Alms given by the public
  • Their handicap

GOOD GOVERNANCE
Problem 1

Non Connectivity of Departments
Potentials

  1. Regular forth night meetings of Heads of Departments
  2. Good rapport among heads
  3. Interrelated/interdependent nature of functions of the departments
  4. Possibility of improving revenue base

Opportunities

  • Location in capital and opportunity to lobby for Government Support for site for city hall
  • Proximity of resource persons
  • Possibility of attracting donor support
  • Good rapport with traditional authority

Constraints

  1. Inadequate funds
  2. Blockade in communication

Challenges

  • Slow process of decentralisation
  • Political interference

Problem 2
AMA not marketing itself enough to engender private public participation and partnership

Potential

  1. Location in the capital
  2. Existence of a Public Relations unit
  3. Active participation of decentralised departments in the activities of the Assembly
  4. Association of the Assembly with people with public relations background

Constraints

  • Difficulty in changing or influencing perceptions
  • Negative attitude of some personnel
  • Small size of Public Relations unit

Challenges

  1. Ignorance about activities and functions of the Assembly
  2. Unwillingness to learn and appreciate AMA functions

Comments

  • Public Relations unit should be well equipped to carry its functions more effectively
  • Marketing of AMA should be treated as a priority
  • The need for an AMA website
  • Officers of the Assembly must discharge their duties with integrity to redeem the Assembly’s poor image.




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